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IN MEMORIAM SEPT. 13, 2016
Robert Timberg, journalist, author and Vietnam veteran, dies
Robert R. "Bob" Timberg, a Marine Corps veteran who survived horrific injuries in Vietnam and became a Washington reporter for The Baltimore Sun, has died at age 76. The Hardesty Funeral Home confirmed that he died at a hospital in Annapolis, where he had lived. Timberg's 1995 book, "The Nightingale's Song," looked at the lives of five fellow Naval Academy graduates, including Sen. John McCain and former Sen. Jim Webb.
Michael Frome, former professor, nationally known as environment writer
Michael Frome, a nationally known writer who taught environmental journalism at several colleges, including Western Washington University for eight years, has died at age 96. Frome died in Wisconsin, where he moved after retiring from Western in 1995. Frome wrote about conservation, environmentalism and the outdoors with the journalistic standards of a reporter and the passion of an advocate. “I teach a different kind of journalism, advocacy journalism in behalf of the environment, yet hewing to basic principles of literacy, accuracy, fairness and meeting the deadline,” he told The Bellingham Herald in 2007.
Thomas C. Benet dies; San Francisco Chronicle reporter, editor for 40 years
Thomas C. Benet, a veteran San Francisco journalist who was a reporter, editor and chief editorial writer for The Chronicle, died at his San Francisco home after a short illness. Mr. Benet, who was 89, had been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in August. Mr. Benet worked at The Chronicle for more than 40 years.
IN MEMORIAM SEPT. 6, 2016
Jerry Griffith, editor of Merced (California) Sun-Star, dies at 88
Jerry William Griffith, a retired newspaper reporter and editor who spent many years with the Merced (California) Sun-Star, has died at age 88. In 1978, Griffith accepted a position with Merced College, where he served as information officer, the family said. The pull of the newsroom and the city beat brought him to the Sun-Star a few years later, where he worked until his retirement in 1991, according to the statement.
Salina (Kansas) Journal’s former publisher dies
Frederick Vandegrift, former publisher of the Salina (Kansas) Journal, has died. He was 87. A graduate of the University of Nebraska, Vandegrift In 1952 accepted a position with the Salina Journal in the advertising department, where he worked on the business side. In 1956, he was appointed to the paper’s board of directors. From there, he worked his way up to publisher and president.
IN MEMORIAM AUG. 30, 2106
Muckraking San Francisco journalist Warren Hinckle dies at 77
Warren Hinckle, a muckraking journalist who drew the wrath of mayors, police or anyone who got in his way, has died. He was 77. The San Francisco Chronicle reports that his daughter Pia Hinckle says her father had been in declining health and died of complications from pneumonia at a hospital near his home in San Francisco. He was surrounded by his family. Hinckle was a groundbreaking editor for the liberal magazines Ramparts and Scanlan's Monthly in the 1960s and '70s and more recently wrote reliably irreverent columns for newspapers, including the San Francisco Chronicle and the San Francisco Examiner, the newspaper reported.
Longtime Associated Press TV columnist Jerry Buck dies at 85
William G. (Jerry) Buck, a columnist who chronicled the television industry for The Associated Press in New York and Los Angeles, died at age 85. During his career he wrote about the rise of cable television, the videocassette and the growth of political TV coverage, among many other topics. His son Scott Buck says his heart stopped after a long decline in health.
IN MEMORIAM AUG. 23, 2016
Prominent black journalist, Publisher George Curry has died
George E. Curry, a journalist, civil rights activist and publisher whose syndicated column ran in hundreds of black-owned newspapers around the United States, has died. He was 69. Curry, of Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly on at Washington Adventist Hospital in Takoma Park, Maryland, after he was taken to the emergency room there, his sister, Charlotte Purvis, said Sunday. Curry's syndicated column was carried in more than 200 African American-owned newspapers, and he served two stints as editor-in-chief of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, a news service for black papers. He also served as editor-in-chief of Emerge magazine in the 1990s.
Longtime Arizona State University journalism professor dies
Joe W. Milner, a longtime Arizona State University professor credited with laying the foundation for the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication in 1984, has died. School officials say Milner died at his home in Tempe at age 87. Milner taught at ASU from 1967 until his retirement in 1991 when he became a professor emeritus at the Cronkite School.
Galveston County Daily News managing editor dies at 46
Scott Williams, managing editor of the Galveston County Daily News, has died at the age of 46. The Daily News (http://bit.ly/2b4LOCy ) reports Williams died at his Dickinson home of an apparent heart attack. The University of Houston graduate first joined the newspaper as a reporter in 1998 and spent the next 10 years covering police and courts. He left in 2008 to earn a law degree from Texas Southern University, then worked as a prosecutor and private-practice lawyer until late 2015. He returned in January to The Daily News as assistant managing editor, becoming managing editor for news in April.
IN MEMORIAM AUG. 16, 2016
Providence Journal investigative reporter Malinowski dies
W. Zachary Malinowski, an award-winning investigative reporter for The Providence Journal, has died following a battle with ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease. The newspaper reported that Malinowski, known as Bill, died at home at age 57. During his 30-year career at the Journal, Malinowski covered a range of stories, from organized crime to public corruption in the administrations of former Rhode Island Gov. Edward DiPrete and former Providence Mayor Buddy Cianci.
IN MEMORIAM AUG. 9, 2016
Former Kentucky editor Joel Wilson has died
Joel Wilson, former managing editor of the Daily Times in Glasgow, Kentucky, has died. He was 77. Wilson began his 50-year career at the Daily Times in 1957 right after graduating from Glasgow High School.
IN MEMORIAM AUG. 2. 2016
Longtime Greeneville Sun publisher John M. Jones III dies
John M. Jones III, longtime publisher of The Greeneville (Tennessee) Sun and a major force in the city's economic development and civic life, has died at age 101. Jones joined the newspaper in December 1945 following almost four years with the U.S. Army during World War II. He served as assistant general manager at the request of his mother-in-law, the late Edith O'Keefe Susong, who was publisher of the Sun and its predecessor newspapers from 1916 until her death in 1974. He was a member of the AP board of directors from 1980 to 1989.
Former Monitor editor Jack King dies in Texas
Jack King, former editor at The Monitor newspaper in McAllen, Texas, has died. King was born on Aug. 1, 1932, in Gainesville, Texas, and devoted more than 40 years of his life to journalism. He started as a cub sports reporter and photographer at the Herald Democrat in Sherman, Texas, where he remained for about 10 years. In 1964 he moved to the Rio Grande Valley to work as an editor for The Monitor newspaper where he remained until his retirement about 30 years later.
Veteran Associated Press editor, mentor Carol Druga dies
Carol Druga, a veteran Associated Press editor who was a newsroom mentor with an acerbic wit and a deep affection for Pittsburgh sports, has died. She was 50. Druga had been treated for cancer over the past several months and died after being sickened by an infection. She began her AP career in the Indianapolis bureau in 2004 before moving to Atlanta to work on the AP's South Regional Desk in 2008. While there, she worked several years as a shift supervisor, juggling countless breaking stories from the Upper Big Branch mine explosion to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. She moved to the sports desk in 2015. Before joining the AP, she worked for more than 10 years at The Herald-Argus newspaper in LaPorte, Indiana.
IN MEMORIAM JULY 26, 2016
Two-time Pulitzer-winning reporter for Chicago Tribune dies
William Gaines, who won two Pulitzer Prizes as an investigative reporter for the Chicago Tribune, has died. He was 82. Gaines, who battled Parkinson's disease for 15 years, died in hospice care in Munster, Indiana, his daughter said. Gaines, who spent 38 years at the Tribune, was part of a team that won a Pulitzer Prize for its work that uncovered "widespread abuse in federal housing programs in Chicago, and which exposed shocking conditions at two private Chicago hospitals," according to the award citation. Twelve years later, Gaines and two other reporters, including Dean Baquet, who is now executive editor of the New York Times, were awarded a Pulitzer for what the citation said was "their detailed reporting on the self-interest and waste that plague Chicago's City Council."
Wayne Ezell, former Florida publisher, dies at cycling event
Wayne Ezell, a former publisher of The News Chief in Winter Haven, Florida, was killed when a pickup ran into him near Glenwood, Iowa, on the first day of a week-long bicycling event. He was 72. Ezell was participating in the RAGBRAI, a cross-Iowa tour that is one of the largest such gatherings in the country. He was part of a contingent of the North Florida Bicycle Club where he was a director, event organizer and publisher of the group's newsletter.
Longtime Miami Herald editor John Edwin McMullan dies
John Edwin McMullan began his Miami Herald career in the 1920s as a carrier boy. He ended it in 1983 as the Miami Herald’s executive editor, a crusty, cantankerous, consummate newspaperman widely regarded as one of the most powerful people in South Florida. McMullan has died at age 95. During two terms as the Miami Herald’s highest ranking news executive, McMullan orchestrated numerous exposes of — and battles with — local institutions and power brokers. He opened domestic and foreign news bureaus, expanding the paper’s reach and horizon. His staff won five Pulitzer prizes.
IN MEMORIAM JULY 19, 2016
Former Hobbs (New Mexico) News-Sun editor, historian Gil Hinshaw dies
Former long-time Hobbs (New Mexico) News-Sun editor Gil Hinshaw has died at the age of 89. The Hobbs News-Sun reported (http://bit.ly/29V22jd) the death and said no cause was listed. An editor at the paper for nearly two decades, Hinshaw started in journalism at his high school newspaper in Tennessee. He joined the Army, serving during the Korean War, and later enlisted in the Air Force and worked in journalism and public affairs overseas. After returning to the U.S., he worked as a reporter in Altus, Oklahoma, before coming to New Mexico, where he worked for The Associated Press and The Albuquerque Tribune. He later served as the editor of newspapers in Tucumcari and Carlsbad and was known for chronicling Lea County history.
Idaho editor Dale Stewart has died
Dale R. Stewart, 83 _ newsman and railroad enthusiast _ died at his home in Twin Falls, Idaho. Stewart spent 55 years in the newspaper profession, beginning as a carrier in his youth. He later was a reporter, editor and photographer for newspapers in Kansas and Idaho including more than 27 years on the staff of the Times-News in Twin Falls. A lifelong interest in railroads was reflected in model railroading, photography and pen and ink art works. This interest focused on the Santa Fe Railway and other lines in Kansas, Oklahoma and Idaho.
Former Honolulu publisher dies
Thurston Twigg-Smith, a scion of missionary descendants who led the once-weaker Honolulu Advertiser into Hawaii’s dominant newspaper, died at the age of 94. Twigg-Smith served as publisher of the Advertiser from 1961 to 1993 until his Persis Corp. sold the newspaper to the Gannett Corp. But everyone from governors to copy boys referred to him simply as “Twigg,” said former Advertiser Editor Gerry Keir. Under Twigg-Smith’s control, he and the late Advertiser editor George Chaplin were credited with bringing the newspaper’s parochial and ultraconservative reputation more in line with Hawaii’s multi-cultural readership.
IN MEMORIAM: JULY 12, 2016
IN MEMORIAM JULY 5, 2016
Former AP bureau chief Joe Benham dies at 82
Joe Benham, a veteran journalist who covered South America for The Associated Press and U.S. News & World Report, has died. He was 82. His wife, Verna Benham, confirmed that he died of lung and heart failure. Benham began his career writing for a newspaper in his hometown of Amarillo. He later worked for the Dallas Times Herald and AP before joining the U.S. Army. He resumed his work for AP and relocated to New York where he covered the United Nations. He later moved to Santiago, Chile, and was the AP bureau chief for Chile and Bolivia. He continued covering South American affairs for U.S. News before relocating to Houston as a regional bureau chief.
IN MEMORIAM JUNE 28, 2016
Ellen Soeteber, former editor of the Post-Dispatch, dies
Veteran journalist Ellen Soeteber, the former editor of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, has died after a brief illness. She was 66. Soeteber, who also spent two decades at the Chicago Tribune and was managing editor of the South Florida Sun-Sentinel, was hospitalized two weeks ago near her home in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, for an infection that proved to be untreatable, her husband and novelist Richard Martins told the Post-Dispatch. Soeteber grew up in East St. Louis, Illinois, and was a 1972 graduate of Northwestern University.
Jack Fuller, ex-Tribune editor and publisher, dies at 69
Jack Fuller, who was a Justice Department lawyer, a novelist and a musician but who was best known as a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, a top executive with the Chicago Tribune and a key architect of one of the largest newspaper acquisitions in history, died June 21 at his home in Chicago. He was 69. The cause was cancer, according to the Tribune, which first reported his death. Mr. Fuller began his career as a 16-year-old copy boy in Chicago, where his father was a longtime Tribune business reporter and editor.
Former Columbus Dispatch publisher John F. Wolfe dies at 72
Longtime Ohio newspaper publisher John F. Wolfe, whose family sold The Columbus Dispatch last year and still owns television and radio stations, has died at age 72. Wolfe died at a Columbus hospital. One of his family's stations, WBNS-TV, reports Wolfe had battled cancer for two years. Wolfe is credited with helping bring professional hockey and soccer teams to Columbus and his family was a minority owner in the Columbus Blue Jackets.
Michael Herr, author of the Vietnam-era 'Dispatches,' dies
Michael Herr, the author and Oscar-nominated screenplay writer who viscerally documented the ravages of the Vietnam War through his classic nonfiction novel "Dispatches" and through such films as "Apocalypse Now" and "Full Metal Jacket," died after a long illness. He was 76. His death in an upstate New York hospital was confirmed by publisher Alfred A. Knopf, which released "Dispatches" in 1977, two years after the U.S. left Vietnam. A native of Syracuse, New York, with a knack for eavesdropping and a reverence for Ernest Hemingway, Herr was part of the New Journalism wave that included Tom Wolfe, Truman Capote and Norman Mailer and advocated applying literary style and techniques to traditional reporting. "Dispatches" is often ranked with Tim O'Brien's novel "The Things They Carried," Neil Sheehan's "A Bright Shining Lie" and Stanley Karnow's "Vietnam: A History" as essential reading about the war.
Ron Goben, a top editor at Bay Area newspapers, dies at 88
Ron Goben, a longtime Bay Area journalist who was a top editor at the Palo Alto Times and Peninsula Times Tribune for more than two decades, was passionate about newspapers, reporters and the written word. He was also passionate about dogs, cats, politics and banana cream pie. Mr. Goben died of cancer at age 88. A native of Rock Island, Ill., Mr. Goben was a graduate of Northwestern University and a U.S. Army veteran. He worked in Tokyo for the military newspaper Stars and Stripes and for the Honolulu Star Bulletin before moving to the Bay Area in 1964.
IN MEMORIAM JUNE 21, 2016
Longtime Chattanooga newspaperman Lee Anderson dies at 90
Lee Stratton Anderson, former publisher and editor of the Chattanooga Free Press, has died in Atlanta. He was 90. He was born in Trenton, Kentucky, and moved to Tennessee as a child. He was hired as a reporter for the newspaper when he was 16 as World War II reduced the newsroom staff. It turned into a 70-year career, and he became editor in 1958 and president and publisher in 1990. Anderson continued as editor of the Free Press editorial page after the sale of the afternoon newspaper in 1998 and its merger with the morning Chattanooga Times in 1999.
Bob Mullins, the Deseret News' Pulitzer Prize-winning writer, dies at 91
Robert D. “Bob” Mullins, the Pulitzer Prize-winning former Deseret News writer, has died at age 91. Mullins won America’s highest journalism honor in 1962 for his story of a murder and kidnapping at Dead Horse Point in July of 1961. Working in remote Utah, he was able to gather information in the crime case that even the FBI didn’t have. He was hired by the Deseret News in April of 1951 and retired Dec. 31, 1987, ending his career as the News’ investigative reporter.
IN MEMORIAM -- JUNE 14, 2016
Former Utah publisher dies 30 years after brain tumor diagnosis
A former publisher at the Standard-Examiner newspaper in Ogden has died from the side effects of treating an inoperable brain tumor for more than 30 years. The newspaper reports (http://bit.ly/1UBpmwY) that Randall C. Hatch was diagnosed with the tumor in 1984, a few years into his tenure as managing editor. He died May 26 at age 64. Hatch held an MBA and Masters of Journalism from Columbia University, and twice served on the panel that decides Pulitzer Prize winners.
Free press crusader and journalist John Virtue dead at 81
John Virtue, a crusader for a free press and the former director of the Florida International University International Media Center, has died. He was 81. University officials say Virtue died of cancer on Friday at a Miami Beach hospital. He spent more than six decades training journalists and covering news focused on topics such as Latin America and former Cuban President Fidel Castro. Virtue launched his career after he was sent to Havana for a month in 1964, where he covered a Castro press conference. He spent 25 years as the director of the International Media Center at FIU and taught 8,000 journalists from 14 countries.
David Lamb dies; L.A. Times correspondent covered 185 countries
David Lamb, a dauntless foreign correspondent for the Los Angeles Times who also wrote critically acclaimed books about the Arab world and Africa, die in Alexandria, Virginia. He was 76. Sandy Northrop, his wife, said the cause was lymphoma and esophageal cancer. Mr. Lamb covered the front lines in Vietnam for United Press International and the fall of Saigon for the Times in 1975. Xan Smiley, a top editor at the Economist, characterized him as "inexhaustibly gutsy."
Jack Bausman, former AP bureau chief in Moscow, dies at 92
Jack Bausman, a Cold War-era correspondent and former Moscow bureau chief for The Associated Press, has died, his daughter said. He was 92. Bausman died at a hospital in Stamford, Connecticut, Mary-Fred Bausman-Watkins said. He had heart surgery in April and never fully recovered, she said. Bausman arrived in Moscow as the news agency's bureau chief in July 1968, about a month before the Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia. He also reported from Frankfurt, Germany, from Warsaw, Poland, and from Budapest, Hungary, during a four-decade career with the AP, including his four years in Moscow.
Indiana editor Raymond Moscowitz dies at 78
Raymond Moscowitz, 78, a former editor at The News-Dispatch, died June 8 in Bloomington, Indiana. Moscowitz, a member of the Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame (inducted 2002), was editor from Nov. 1981 to Sept. 1983, when the paper was owned by Nixon Newspapers Inc. (NNI). Moscowitz spent 29 years with NNI, the last 10 as editorial director, based in Peru. In 1998, the Hoosier State Press Association created The Ray Moscowitz Award, which recognizes newspaper excellence “beyond the call of duty.” The first
IN MEMORIAM JUNE 7, 2016
Virginia AP reporter Steve Szkotak dies at age 65
Steve Szkotak, a versatile and prolific AP journalist who covered the environment and a host of other issues, has died at age 65. Mandy Szkotak said her husband died of cancer at home with family members at his side. Szkotak worked as an editor and reporter at the AP bureau in Richmond for 14 years, eloquently putting a human face on stories about watermen, Civil War buffs, criminals and crime victims, public figures and all manner of regular folks.
Ohio University journalism professor Guido Stempel III dies
Guido Stempel III, an Ohio University professor who was instrumental in shaping the curriculum of the journalism school and the careers of hundreds of students, has died of cancer at age 87. The university in Athens says Stempel, a distinguished emeritus professor of journalism in the Scripps College of Communication, died at a hospital in Columbus. Stempel joined the Ohio University faculty in 1965 and served as director of the School of Journalism for eight years. He also served as director of the graduate program and the journalism honors program. He was named a distinguished professor in 1982. Along with editing and contributing to many publications and journals, he was editor of Journalism Quarterly for 17 years.
Bob Gassaway dies after career as journalist, professor
Bob Gassaway, a long-time professor in Missouri and New Mexico, has died at age 74. Gassaway worked as a journalist for The Associated Press and the Columbia (Missouri) Daily Tribune, and he taught his craft to students at the Missouri School of Journalism and later at the University of New Mexico.
Read more: http://www.columbiamissourian.com/obituaries/missourian_life_story/bob-gassaway-former-journalist-and-professor-remembered-as-curious-intent/article_caa1e25e-2833-11e6-a781-ff50c81ff35b.html
Longtime Nebraska publisher, philanthropist James Seacrest dies at 78
A longtime Nebraska newspaper publisher and Lincoln philanthropist has died. James Seacrest was 78. Seacrest was active in the newspaper industry for 40 years, and served as president and chairman of Western Nebraska Publishing Co. in North Platte from 1968 to 2000. The company published daily, weekly and shopper newspapers in western Nebraska. James Seacrest and his wife Rhonda were awarded the Lincoln Community Foundation's Charity Award two years ago.
NPR journalist David Gilkey, translator killed on assignment
David Gilkey, a veteran news photographer and video editor for National Public Radio, and an Afghan translator, Zabihullah Tamanna, were killed while on assignment in southern Afghanistan, the network says. Gilkey and Tamanna were traveling with an Afghan army unit near Marjah in Helmand province when the convoy came under fire and their vehicle was struck, the network's spokeswoman, Isabel Lara, said in a statement. Two other NPR journalists, Tom Bowman and producer Monika Evstatieva, were traveling with them and were not hurt. Gilkey had covered conflict and war in Iraq and Afghanistan since the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on Washington and New York and was committed to helping the public see the wars and the people caught up in them, NPR's senior vice president of news and editorial director, Michael Oreskes, said in a statement. Oreskes formerly worked as a vice president and senior managing editor for AP. "As a man and as a photojournalist, David brought out the humanity of all those around him. He let us see the world and each other through his eyes," Oreskes said. Tamanna, 37, was a freelancer who often worked for NPR.
IN MEMORIAM MAY 31, 2016
Flora Rathburn, former city editor of Pittsburgh Press, has died
Flora Rathburn, former city editor of the now-defunct Pittsburgh Press, has died of congestive heart failure. She was 79. Ms. Rathburn, who went into her first paid journalism job as a young, divorced mother in need of income, ended up overseeing a news staff that won prestigious Pulitzer Prizes in 1986 and 1987 at the Pittsburgh Press. She was still the city editor when the Press closed from 1992 labor strife, and she took her editing skills afterward to The Detroit News and Cleveland Plain Dealer before retirement in 2002. She was a native of Colorado.
IN MEMORIAM MAY 24, 2016
Morley Safer, veteran "60 Minutes" correspondent, dies at 84
During a recent visit with a frail Morley Safer, Tom Brokaw exchanged memories with him about fellow journalists Ben Bradlee, Don Hewitt and others who had died. "All the great ones are gone," Safer said quietly to Brokaw, the veteran NBC newsman recalled. "I said, 'No, Morley, you're still with us.'" Safer's death at age 84 swelled the loss. The "60 Minutes" mainstay represented a bridge between the glory ink-stained-wretch days of foreign correspondents — Ernest Hemingway was an early inspiration — and the blooming electronic age of TV news. Safer spun artful stories about the good life but was equally adroit reporting on social injustices or exposing a military atrocity in Vietnam that played an early role in changing Americans' view of the war.
IN MEMORIAM MAY 17, 2016
Longtime Tennessean political reporter Daughtrey dead at 76
Larry Daughtrey, a longtime political reporter and columnist for The Tennessean newspaper, has died. He was 76. Senior Judge Martha Daughtrey of the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals says her husband suffered from complications from lung disease. Daughtrey began his career at the paper while still studying at Vanderbilt University, and spent his entire career covering politics in Nashville, declining to follow Tennessean colleagues such as David Halberstam, Bill Kovach and Jim Squires to bigger cities and newspapers.
Retired Alabama political reporter Bob Johnson dies at 66
Longtime Alabama political reporter Bob Johnson, who retired from The Associated Press nearly two years ago, has died. He was 66. Johnson died at his son's home in Gardendale, likely from a massive stroke, his daughter-in-law Becky Johnson said. Johnson spent 14 years at the AP before retiring in 2014, but he had been a fixture in Alabama journalism since the 1970s. During his career, he worked as a statehouse reporter at the Montgomery Advertiser and as a reporter and editor at the former Birmingham Post-Herald.
IN MEMORIAM May 10, 2016
Newspaper editor, columnist Anne Pershing has died
Longtime newspaper editor and columnist Anne Pershing, known for championing social causes in the northern Nevada communities she covered, has died. She was 71. Tim Pershing said his mother was found at home in Reno, and likely died of heart disease. Anne Pershing was drawn to journalism because she wanted to help all people in the community, a principle that allowed her to stand firm when she took positions that were unpopular or ahead of the times in a small town, her son said. Anne Pershing was inducted into the Nevada Newspaper Hall of Fame in 2008 following an accomplished career with two rural Nevada weeklies.
Towery, who won '55 Pulitzer Prize for local reporting, dies
Ken Towery, a small-town Texas journalist who wo